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Six Sigma Improvement Tools: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

Posted in Lean Six Sigma

Besides CNX diagram (Fishbone diagram) and Pareto diagram, there are other ways to determine the significant Few opportunities is by FMEA. Pareto diagram requires a lot of data variations to determine the factors that most influence on an event / process. If the data is not possible then the results obtained will be raw and less satisfying. For that use of FMEA is strongly recommended.


The use of FMEA in the beginning was the maintenance of industrial safety or reliability, but later widely used in various processes. From the FMEA results, improvement priorities will be given to components that have a priority level (NDP) the highest.

FMEA is made in tables consisting of columns as follows.
Component: The component to be studied can include machines, processes, etc.
Failure Mode: The model of the failure is often the case.
Failure Effect: the impact if a component called the failure modes fail.
SEV: severity is the quantification of how serious the condition that caused the failure of a result mentioned in the failure effect. This is a level of seriousness that was written 1,2,3,4,5 (not serious to very serious)

Causes: what causes the failure of a component
OCC: the possibility of failure. written in 5 levels, very rare (1) to very frequently occurs (5)
Control: This shows what methods we employ to anticipate these failures
DET: Escape Detection, indicating the possibility of escape of the cause of the failure of the control we’ve done. written from level 1-5, figure 1 shows the possibility to pass from the control is very small and the number 5 indicates the possibility of escape is very great.
RPN: Risk Priority Number is the result of multiplication of SEVxOCCxDET and the results used to determine the components and failure modes of a priority to resolve.

For a complete FMEA analysis, also need to include action and plan to do to avoid or eliminate failures, and changes in the value of SEV, OCC, and DET if indeed there is a change after we design a plan is shown in a new column named pSEV, pOCC, and pRPN. To complete this analysis, determination of priority is determined based on the value of pRPN

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