Total Quality Management is an application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve in the provision of raw materials and services for the organization, all processes within the organization at a certain level where customer needs are met now and in the future. TQM is more an attitude and behavior based on the satisfaction of its work and the work of its team or group. TQM requires the commitment of management as an organizational leader in which this commitment must be disseminated to all employees and at all levels or departments within the organization. TQM is not a program or system, but a culture that must be built, maintained and enhanced by all members of the organization or company when the organization or company is oriented to quality and make quality as a way of life.
Controls, systems, and techniques are indispensable in the application of TQM, but they are not necessarily a necessity. The most important thing in TQM implementation is the thorough involvement of everyone in the organization or company to change the old culture into a new culture. These changes include:
1. From control to empowerment. Employees do not want to be constantly monitored. They want to always be involved, invited to discuss, and argue. They must also be assigned the appropriate responsibilities and get the opportunity to grow and be rewarded for their achievements.
2. From secrecy or something of a grapevine to open communication between all members of the organization or company. With openness, cooperation will be realized, and with openness, misunderstandings can be resolved.
3. From inspection to prevention. Inspection is the inspection of finished goods or products after exit from the production process. So if any products are defective or not in accordance with customer specifications, will be discarded or held rework. This is what makes companies have to pay dearly. In TQM there is no longer the term inspection, but prevention. That is, since from product planning. The production process to the final product results in a defect or zero defect.
4. From the internal focus and the external focus, the internal focus is the company’s or organization’s attention on its own ability alone, so that the production process is carried out based on capability regardless of customer demand (push system) while TQM assumes that this way of production is waste. TQM focuses more on customer needs and expectations (external focus) so as to implement pull-pull process.
5. From cost and sales to conformity to quality. Initially, companies or organizations pay attention only to cost and production time. However, these conditions then turned into the quality of the product into its orientation. The quality of the product in question here is with regard to customer needs and expectations. Goods or services are said to be quality if they can reduce costs, eliminate waste, deliver on time (faster delivery), and sell at a lower price. If this is achieved, then the profit increases.
6. From stability to change and continuous improvement. Conditions that do not change instead of bringing benefits and benefits to the company. It is the company or organization that is willing to change and willing to continuously make improvements that will work well. In a stable condition, people will never learn. While in organizations that use TQM philosophy is required to always learn or change, improve or improve its ability, because the principle of continuous quality improvement TQM.
7. From a relationship of a competitive nature to a cooperative relationship. In organizations that use the TQM concept, all parties directly or indirectly contact the organization (suppliers, customers, competitors, etc.) are friends or relatives. It demands strong and mutual cooperation. Close relationships and good cooperation with customers will make them open to provide criticism and suggestions for improving products and services produced by the company.
8. From allocating and throwing the unknown into a solution of all problems to its roots. The company will usually cover up the problem and pretend not to know, or hate anyone who knows the problems. Companies or organizations that embrace the philosophy TQM will actually face all the problems that exist, looking for completion to completion.
To be able to apply TQM to the service industry needed some basic concepts, techniques and steps of application, among others:
a) Focus on the product (which in this case is the services offered) and the customer.
b) Leadership in service organizations that support the implementation of TQM philosophers.
c) Organizational culture (ie organizational culture that berorentasi quality).
d) Effective communication between all personnel within the organization and between personnel of the organization and customers.
e) Knowledge or expertise of employees in implementing TQM philosophy.
f) Responsibility of employees.
g) Management based on data and facts.
h) Long-term viewpoint.
Total quality management is a set of steps that must be passed level by level to be able to apply them. Basically to be able to apply the total quality management that is most needed is the support or commitment from top leaders, communication among all members of the organization, and the existence of cultural changes